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Where Did Backgammon Come From


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Where Did Backgammon Come From

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Where Did Backgammon Come From Where Did Backgammon Get Its Name? Video

The history of backgammon

Backgammon is one of the world's oldest known board games. It has its roots in the Roman Empire. After a lengthy tour of various versions of the game through the middle east and Asia, it showed up in England in the 16th century. The name "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English "gamen", meaning "game" or "play". Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence, alongside Go and Chess. It is probably about 5, years old and may well have originated in what today is Iraq—previously Mesopotamia. Recent evidence supporting this was found when these very early . The ancient game of Backgammon evolved over thousands of years into the game we know today. Its oldest known probable ancestor is the Egyptian game called "Senet" (or sometimes Senat, known to the Egyptians as "the game of thirty squares") which was played on a board of 3 x 10 squares with dice and dates back to at least 3, BC. The Roman game of Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum is thought to be a descendant of Senet and is known to have been played on a similar board consisting of 3 x Casino Gratis Sin Descargar rows of "points", with dice. The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacobyallows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values SolitГ¤r Altes Rom if the cube has already been offered 5 Casino Slots accepted. As the playing time for each individual game is short, it is Bevorstehend played in matches where victory is awarded to the first player to reach a Star Casino Parking Fees number of points. Both also require that you first move all your men into your home sector before you can get them off the board. TD-Gammondeveloped by Gerald Tesauro of IBMwas the first of these programs to play near the expert level. The exact Dead ManS Hand Hearthstone of Senet are unknown and have been lost in history, but it is thought to have involved many of Backgammon's playing principles. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq, the game is commonly called tawlewhich means table. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July[51] [52] but there are now a range of options, [53] many of which are commercial. Some were found in tombs. Other wooden boards have been found in the royal tomb of the Ur al Chaldees, the centre of Sumer, which have been dated to about BC along with dice and are known as The Royal Games of Ur. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another Piggy Bank Deutsch is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Hollandwhich stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side. Shesh Besh is commonly used to refer to when a player scores a 5 and 6 Online Blackjack the same time on dice. The two players move their chips in opposing directions, Dream Pet Link Kostenlos the point towards the 1-point.

Du Where Did Backgammon Come From genau richtig. - Description

From casual players who just want to kill time to backgammon world champions, Casino Online Lastschrift can enjoy Backgammon Ace together! Welcome to Backgammon - Lord of the Board - If you LOVE playing online Backgammon with friends then you have come to the right place! Even if you are a. It does, however, come without backgammon cups, which I should've realized beforehand. For the board itself, it's extremely slick, so the chips slide very easily if. Oct 7, - games: Paloma Backgammon Set | WOLFUM {preserve} Backgammon Set (that is so incredibly visually pleasing its unbelievable) Backgammon, Kings Table Pen And Paper GamesOld ThingsThings To Come​Maritime MuseumCamping GamesFamily Don't know how to play it, but it'd look great on. Come back to improve your backgammon skills and watch your stats soar! Lots of better games out there but Heroz does have the best user. In Asti Piccolo, Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined. Not the most creative name, but it was a simpler time for entertainment branding. When was ABPA Backgammon created? With each roll of the Us Online Gambling, players must choose from numerous options for moving their Bin Ich Verflucht and anticipate possible counter-moves by the opponent. The earliest known record of a backgammon-like game were the Egyptian/Iraqi games of senet and the Royal Game of Ur, dating back to around BC. The game of 'nard' was popular in ancient Persia. Backgammon is one of the oldest known board 21stcenturywhips.com history can be traced back nearly 5, years to archaeological discoveries in Mesopotamia. It is a two-player game where each player has fifteen pieces (checkers or men) that move between twenty-four triangles (points) according to the roll of two dice. In Asia, the game was first noted as Nard prior to at least AD in South West Asia or Persia (Modern day Iran, Iraq and Syria) and has constantly remained an extremely popular game in the region to this day. Also known as Nardshir, Nardeeshir, and Nard-i-shir. Certain passages in literature indicate the name backgammon was first used around the mids although the exact origin of the word is not clear. It may have come from the Welsh words baec (back) and cammaun (battle) or possibly the Middle English words of baec (back) and gamen (game). Backgammon is one of the world's oldest known board games. It has its roots in the Roman Empire. After a lengthy tour of various versions of the game through the middle east and Asia, it showed up in England in the 16th century. The name "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English "gamen", meaning "game" or "play".
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Where Did Backgammon Come From
Where Did Backgammon Come From

Thus it gives an impression that backgammon was popular among the aristocrats. As a matter of fact, Plato's Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, which means twelve-lined game was thought to be one of the earliest references to backgammon.

Among the Romans, backgammon was called tabula, probably in reference to the board. They also introduced the game in Britain during the 1st century A.

The name tabula was later changed into its English translation "table. However, backgammon also became popular among other countries.

In Spain, backgammon was called "Tablas Reales," which means Regal Tables. The French people called it "Le Trictrac. Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule".

If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R.

Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.

If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the 24, 23 and 22 points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.

Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is "safe". All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge.

Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [18] in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.

Gul bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.

Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.

Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere backgammon to lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.

Tabla is a Bulgarian variant of Backgammon, played without the doubling cube. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.

For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [25] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.

The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".

The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage. Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play.

Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play. Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.

The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued that backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon also has a second meaning of a triple score in the backgammon game. The duration of Emotional Backgammon is 1. Emotional Backgammon was created on Lewis Deyong has written: 'Playboy's Book of backgammon' -- subject s : Backgammon 'Backgammon, learning to win'.

The doctors play backgammon She plays back gammon The doctor plays backgammon. There are 2 players in Backgammon.

There cannot be more than 2, although there is a backgammon variation called Chouette for 3 players and more. Backgammon is thought to have originated from Persia now modern day Iran.

I met my fiance playing backgammon on the internet nearly 5 years ago. Tim Holland - backgammon - was born in There are 24 points on a backgammon board.

Backgammon is a two-player board game. Players take turns rolling a pair of dice, moving their pieces around the board.

Backgammon is one of the oldest table games in the world. There are a number of places that one can play internet backgammon.

Some sites that offer internet backgammon include Microsoft, Pogo, Play65 and Game Colony. Both players have 15 "men" at the beginning of a Backgammon game.

Joe Dwek has written: 'Backgammon for profit' -- subject s : Backgammon. How many counter does each player Backgammon Rules.

It was so popular with soldiers in the Christian army that playing it for money became subject to strict rules—betting was only allowed for the knightly class and above, and even they had restrictions.

King John liked to play tables with some of his court, and they even placed some modest bets. Unlike Caligula, King John seems to have played nice and fair, noting his payouts in his book of daily expenses when he lost.

If the nobles enjoy something, commoners will follow suit if they can afford it, so backgammon spread across social stratification.

Regardless, the game was ubiquitous. Man, that takes me back to struggling through Middle English courses in college.

Worth every penny. The final snag preventing full cultural acceptance of tables appears to be its classification as a game of luck, rather than one of skill, since it uses dice, and that makes it sinful, I guess?

There is luck, sure, but it is indeed a game of skill because I suck at it. But then I consider how many layers of clothing Elizabethans wore all the time, and you know what?

The first documented reference to the game in English was in The Codex Exoniensis first published in AD: "These two shall sit at Tables The name Tables refers to the ancient game of Backgammon.

It was probably brought to England by knights returning from the Crusades. Tables was popular throughout Europe during the middle ages and was an extremely popular game in English taverns at that time.

Chess overtook it in popularity in the 15th-century and by the end of the 16th-century Tables had become a general term for a game played with pieces on a flat board or table.

The first reference to the game as "Backgammon" is dated to AD and there is some conjecture and debate over how the name was derived.

One theory is that the name was derived from the Middle English or Saxon word "gam" meaning "game" and "bac" meaning "back" and so probably meant "the game where you can go back", a reference to a blot in which a player's marker has been sent to the bar and must start its journey around the board from the start.

Another theory is that it is derived from the Welsh words "back" meaning "little" and "gammon" meaning "battle". The rules to Backgammon were modified somewhat in the early 17th-century when the game underwent a huge popular revival sweeping across Europe where it was known by a number of different names in different countries which have mostly remained in use to this day.

Edmund Hoyle published the first official rules for Backgammon in

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